Silo design: avoiding flow problems through adequate designAvoid silo problems, such as bridging, funnel flow, ratholing, arching, segregation and product decay. Silo design for gravity flow; most economic.
To avoid problems in silos concerning flow, product ageing or decay, silo design is necessary. The design of a silo is based on the most economical case: gravity flow. Wall friction, internal friction and bridging properties determine the applicable hopper angle and opening diameter.
In some cases through the design procedure it is found that a "simple" silo is not possible. This however saves a lot of work and costs.
To prevent flow problems in a silo, proper silo design is necessary.
The most obvious (and the most economical) way of storing bulk solids is in a silo with gravity flow. In this case the silo consists of a cylindrical or rectangular part with a hopper. The hopper lets the product converge to the opening. This simple fact is the direct cause of most problems, such as: unsteady flow, segregation, remaining product, ageing or decay of the product, shaking or quaking of the silo, flooding, or: flow does